Intense laboratory research will be dedicated to the development of a range of microsatellite and MLST markers for the subgenus Viannia. Epidemiological research will involve endemic areas for VL and MCL in Paraguay, Peru, Brazil and Venezuela. New and existing isolates will be assembled from suburban and rural endemic areas, including isolates from immunocompetent and immunocompromised human cases, from infected dogs and other mammal reservoirs, and from vectors. Isolates will be genotyped with the new Viannia markers and with markers from Europe for L. infantum, and data then analysed. Functional genotyping of the L. braziliensis complex and L. guyanensis will also be performed using antigen genes and microsatellite analysis to reassess correlation between antigenic diversity and pathology. Genetic analysis will be undertaken of antimony-resistant strains of L. infantum, L. braziliensis complex and L. guyanensis. Bilateral and multiple exchanges will take place. An international training workshop will be held. A survey will be undertaken of knowledge, attitude and practises among health professionals and patients. A series of publications and reports will be written to disseminate findings from the project. Recommendations will be produced for improved control strategies.